Bam Citadel; World's Largest Adobe Building

Arg-e Bam or Bam Citadel is the largest adobe building in the world and located in Bam, Kerman province, Iran. This ancient citadel has been listed by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Site as “Bam and its Cultural Landscape”.

Iran (IMNA) - Bam is a city situated in a desert environment and its origin traced back to the Achaemenid period. Being on the way of silk road and other important trade routes in the 7th to 11th century and also recognized as the hub of silk and cotton garments production were some factors that involved in the heyday of this remarkable city in that period.

Largest Adobe Building in the World:

Bam Citadel as the largest adobe building in the world makes this city mostly well-known all over the world. In addition, there have been 67 towers in this ancient city. Bam Citadel was built in vernacular using mud layer and was known as a fortified medieval town. This historical site covers an area of nearly 200.000 square meters and walls as high as 6 to 7 meters.

Three Different Types of House:

There are different houses in the citadel, all of them were made of baked clay bricks.

. Small houses with 2 or 3 rooms for people who were not rich.

. Large houses with 3 or 4 rooms and some of them with Ivan as well, for middle class society families.

. Just a few number of houses equipped with more rooms and a big yard and also a barn for animals. These luxurious houses are located in different parts for different seasons.

Sustainable Architecture of Bam Citadel:

According to magnificent architecture of citadel, winds protruding structures used to catch the wind and steer it into the building. Moreover, sometimes water reservoirs inside the building used to cool it and remove dust. Accordingly, sustainable architecture of Bam Citadel was a significant factor in utilizing some renewable energies such as wind power in the 7th century to such an extent that architecture of the citadel was a major reason to utilize wind power as an air conditioner and lead it to different directions into the building.

2003 Bam Terrible Earthquake:

On 26 December, 2003, Bam was struck by a deadly earthquake. In such a disaster more than 80 percent of Bam Citadel was destroyed but many countries such as Japan, Italy and France participated to reconstruct Bam Citadel as a World Heritage. By sending a team of experts, various equipment, million dollars and a three-dimensional plan of Bam, they helped to increase the accuracy in renovation process. Also, the World Bank contributed in the process by allocating a large sum of money for Bam citadel reconstruction. Following the earthquake, bam Citadel was on the list of World Heritage in Danger, but according to UNESCO, due to renovation proceedings, in recent years it was removed from the list of in danger monuments.

By: Elahe Jalali

News ID 389349


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